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Genral Information (5)

Genral Information

Viscosity classification chart

 

• Viscosity at various temperatures are related horizontally.
• Viscosities at various temperatures assume a VI of 95.
• ISO and AGMA viscosities are specified at 40ºC.
• SAE 20 to 50 and SAE 90 to 250 are specified at 100ºC.
• SAE gear and crankcase specifications are at 100ºC only.
• Multigrade oil viscosities are not representative at other temperatures.
• SAE 5W, 10W, 75W, 80W and 85W are based on low temperature
• specifications at 100ºF and 210ºF are shown.

  

Basics of Lubricants

 

 

 

Viscosity also called dynamic viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. The SI unit is kilogram per meter per second (kg/m-s) while C.G.S unit is gram per centimeter per second (g/cm-s) or poise. The most common unit is centipoise (cP).

 The viscosity of a lubricant decreases as temperature increases and the viscosity of a lubricant increases as temperature decreases .The viscosity of a lubricant is closely related to its ability to reduce friction. Generally, the thinnest lubricant is ideal which still forces the two moving surfaces apart. If the lubricant is too thick, it will require a lot of energy to move the surfaces. If it is too thin, the surfaces will rub and friction will increase.

Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of a fluid to its density. It is a measure of a fluid’s resistance under the influence of gravity to flow. The SI unit is square meter per second(m2/s) while C.G.S unit is square centimeter per second (cm2/s )or stoke. The most common unit is centistokes (cSt) i.e square millimeter per second.(mm2/s).

viscosity index (V.I) Viscosity Index is the variation characteristics of viscosity with temperature. If the variation of temperature does not affect the viscosity of oil. it means oil has high Viscosity Index. It is a dimensionless quantity. It is determined by measuring the kinematic viscosities of the oil at 40 oC and 100 oC and using the tables or formulas included in ASTM D 2270.

 

 

 

flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which vapors of a given oil give a momentary flash when a tiny flame is brought near it under a specified test condition. The unit is oC.(degree Celsius).

fire point, is defined as the temperature at which the vapor continues to burn after being ignited.

The pour point of a liquid is the lowest temperature at which the oil ceases to flow under prescribed conditions. The unit is oC.(degree Celsius).

Most petroleum based oils have waxes and paraffin that solidify at cold temperatures. Oils with more waxes and paraffin will have a higher pour point while highly refined oils and synthetic oils will have significantly lower pour points.

 

Total Base Number  (TBN) is a measure of the reserve alkalinity of a motor oil and how well the oil can neutralize harmful acidic by-products of combustion. It can also be defined as the quantity of acid, expressed in terms of the equivalent number of milligrams (mg) of Potassium Hydroxide that is required to titrate the strong base constituents present in 1 gm. of oil sample. The minimum value of engine oil TBN should be 3.If TBN is less than 3 then oil should be changed.

  

Density of material is its mass per unit volume. The S.I unit is kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3) while C.G.S unit is gram per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) also called gram per milliliter (g/ml).

 

Ash content is the percent by weight of residue left after combustion of an oil sample.Sulphated ash is a direct measure of the amount of oil additive that contain metal. These additives prevent deposit and wear. They generally contain metals such as calcium, magnesium and zinc.

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The Copper Corrosion Test assesses the relative degree of corrosivity of petroleum products ,including lubricants due to active sulfur compounds. A polished copper strip is immersed in a 30 ml of sample at elevated temperature. After the the test period, the strip is examined for evidence of corrosion. Results are rated by comparing the stains on a copper strip to a color-match scale from 1-4.

 

Additives are chemical compounds that improve the lubricant performance of base oil (or "base stock").

. Additives provides the anti oxidant,anti wear,anti rust,anti foaming ,detergency and dispersant .e.t.c .property to the lubricant

API Classification System :API stands for the American Petroleum Institute. This body has specified the performance standards that oils used in road vehicles should meet. For oils to use in passenger car engines, the letters API are followed by a set of two letters such as SM, etc. Service Levels for passenger car oils or ‘S’ indicates for Spark Ignition Engine. These specified performance levels have evolved through the years, from API SA to SN,
Similarly, the API designates the performance of diesel engine oils with a letter sequence such as API CF-4.’C’ indicates for commercial or compression ignition engine.  Automotive gear oils they use API GL-4.API GL-5 e.t.c
The highest API for commercial engine oils (diesel oils) today is API CJ-4.

Item

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SJ

SL

SM

Oxidation stability

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Anti-sludge performance

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Wear resistance of variable valve train system

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Rust prevention performance

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Low volatility performance

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Shear stability

Deposit control at high temperature

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Compatibility with oil seal

Compatibility with exhaust catalyst

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Anti-foaming performance

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Cold startability

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Filterability

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☆marks in total

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28

33

 

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) SAE Stands for the Society of Automotive Engineers, based in the U.S.A.The SAE grade specifies the most important parameters for engine oil mainly its viscosity. The SAE viscosity classification defines mainly viscosity limits at high and low temperature for any grade of lubricants. The SAE grade guide us to the right viscosity for different outside temperatures. Grades marked ‘w’ stand for winter are at a temperature below 00C.

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International Standards Organization is an organization which is worldwide in scope, sets standards and classifications for lubricants. An example is the ISO viscosity grade system.

Monograde (single grade) is a term used to describe an oil when its viscosity falls within the limits specified for a single SAE number.

Multigrade These are oils designed to give better viscosities at both high and low temperatures. Multi-Grade oils are made by adding viscosity index improver. The viscosity of all oils falls as they get hot - and multi-grade oils are formulated to minimize this effect. Multi-grade oils are defined by a viscosity rating at a low temperature, as well as one at 100 C.

 

 
 
 
 
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grease -As per ASTM D 288(American Society for Testing and Materials) lubricating grease can be defined as: "A solid to semi fluid product of dispersion of a thickening agent in liquid lubricant. Other ingredients imparting special properties may be included" .

Grease Composition- There is three components that form lubricating grease. These components are oil, thickener and additives. The base oil and additive package are the major components in grease formulations. The thickener is often referred to as a sponge that holds the lubricant (base oil plus additives).

 

 

Base OilThe base oil may be either mineral oil or synthetic oil and it constitutes 70-90% by weight of grease composition. Most grease produced today use mineral oil as their fluid components. These mineral oil-based greases typically provide satisfactory performance in most industrial and automotive applications. In the extreme condition of temperatures i.e. either low or high, grease that utilizes synthetic base oil will provide better stability.

Thickener (Soap) -The thickener is a material that, in combination with the selected lubricant, will produce the solid to semi fluid structure. The thickener ranges from 3-30% by weight of grease composition. The primary type of thickener used in current grease is metallic soap. These soaps include lithium, aluminum, sodium , calcium, clay and polyurea.  

The complex thickener-type greases are gaining popularity because of their high dropping points and excellent load-carrying abilities. Complex greases are made by combining the conventional metallic soap with a complexing agent. The most widely used complex grease is lithium based. These are made with a combination of conventional lithium soap and a low- molecular-weight organic acid as the complexing agent. Nonsoap thickeners ,such Bentonite and silica aerogel are also gaining popularity in special applications such as high-temperature environments because they do not melt at high temperatures. There is a misconception, however, that even though the thickener may be able to withstand the high temperatures, the base oil will oxidize quickly at elevated temperatures, thus requiring a frequent relube interval.

Additives  -Additives can play several roles in lubricating grease. It constitutes 0-10% by weight of grease composition.  These primarily include enhancing the existing desirable properties, suppressing the existing undesirable properties, and imparting new properties. The most common additives are oxidation and rust inhibitors, extreme pressure, antiwear, and friction-reducing agents.In addition to these additives friction modifier such as molybdenum disulfide (moly) or graphite is used  in the grease to reduce friction and wear without adverse chemical reactions to the metal surfaces during heavy loading and slow speeds in boundary lubrication condition.

Function -The function of grease is to remain in contact with and lubricate moving surfaces without leaking out under the force of gravity, centrifugal action or being squeezed out under pressure. Its major practical requirement is that it retains its properties under shear forces at all temperatures it experiences during use.

Applications Suitable for Grease -Grease and oil are not interchangeable. Grease is used when it is not practical or convenient to use oil. The lubricant choice for a specific application is determined by matching the machinery design and operating conditions with desired lubricant characteristics. Grease is generally used for:

1.Machinery that runs intermittently or is in storage for an extended period of time. Because grease remains in place, a lubricating film can instantly form.

2. Machinery that is not easily accessible for frequent lubrication. High-quality greases can lubricate isolated or relatively inaccessible components for extended periods of time without frequent replenishing. These greases are also used in sealed-for-life applications such as some electrical motors and gearboxes.

 3.Machinery operating under extreme conditions such as high temperatures and pressures, shock loads or slow speed under heavy load.

4.Worn components. Grease maintains thicker films in clearances enlarged by wear and can extend the life of worn parts that were previously lubricated by oil.

Functional  Properties of Grease -Grease functions as a sealant to minimize leakage and to keep out contaminants. Because of its consistency, grease acts as a sealant to prevent lubricant leakage and also to prevent entrance of corrosive contaminants and foreign materials. It also acts to keep deteriorated seals effective.

1.Grease is easier to contain than oil. Oil lubrication can require an expensive system of circulating equipment and complex retention devices. In comparison, grease, by virtue of its rigidity, is easily confined with simplified, less costly retention devices.

2.Grease holds solid lubricants in suspension. Finely ground solid lubricants, such as molybdenum disulfide (moly) and graphite, are mixed with grease in high-temperature service or in extreme high-pressure applications. Grease holds solids in suspension while solids will settle out of oils.

3.Fluid level does not have to be controlled and monitored.

Characteristics - Grease are used because of their properties. The properties of grease depend upon the composition of grease and nature of its constituents.Grease properties are defined and measured by a number of tests, many of them are unique. The characteristics commonly found on product data sheets include the following:

Pumpability- Pumpability is the ability of a grease to be pumped or pushed through a system. More practically, pumpability is the ease with which pressurized grease can flow through lines, nozzles and fittings of grease-dispensing systems.

Consistency- Consistency of grease is a measure of its relative hardness or hardness which controls the ability of grease to lubricate, stay in place and seal. Consistency determines the method of dispensing and application. Grease consistency depends on the type and amount of thickener used and the viscosity of its base oil. The measure of consistency is called penetration. Penetration depends on whether the consistency has been altered by handling or working. ASTM D 217 and D 1403 methods measure penetration of unworked and worked greases. To measure penetration, a cone of given weight is allowed to sink into a grease for five seconds at a standard temperature of 25°C.

 The depth, in tenths of a millimeter, to which the cone sinks into the grease is the penetration. A penetration of 100 would represent a solid grease while a penetration of 450 would be semifluid. The NLGI has established consistency numbers or grade numbers, ranging from 000 to 6, corresponding to specified ranges of penetration numbers. Table lists the NLGI grease classifications along with a description of the consistency of how it relates to common semi fluids.

 

 

Dropping point-Dropping point is the temperature at which the grease passes from a semisolid to a liquid state. This change in state is typical of greases containing conventional soap thickeners. Greases containing thickeners other than conventional soaps may, without change in state, separate Oil. The unit is oC.(degree Celsius).Dropping point is an indicator of the heat resistance of grease. As grease temperature increases, penetration increases until the grease liquefies and the desired consistency is lost. The dropping point indicates the upper temperature limit at which grease retains its structure, not the maximum temperature at which grease may be used.

 

Oxidation stability-This is the ability of a grease to resist a chemical combination  with oxygen. The reaction of grease with oxygen produces insoluble gum, sludges and lacquer-like deposits that cause sluggish operation, increased wear and reduction of clearances. Prolonged exposure to high temperatures accelerates oxidation in greases.

High-temperature effects-High temperatures harm greases more than they harm oils. Grease, by its nature, cannot dissipate heat by convection like a circulating oil. Consequently, without the ability to transfer away heat, excessive temperatures result in accelerated oxidation or even carbonization where grease hardens or forms a crust.

Effective grease lubrication depends on the grease's consistency. High temperatures induce softening and bleeding, causing grease to flow away from needed areas. The mineral oil in grease can flash, burn or evaporate at temperatures greater than 177°C .

Low-temperature effects-If the temperature of a grease is lowered enough, it will become so viscous that it can be classified as a hard grease. Pumpability suffers and machinery operation may become impossible due to torque limitations and power requirements. As a guideline, the base oil's pour point is considered the low-temperature limit of grease.

Water resistance- This is the ability of a grease to withstand the effects of water with no change in its ability to lubricate. A soap/water lather may suspend the oil in the grease, forming an emulsion that can wash away or, to a lesser extent, reduce lubricity by diluting and changing grease consistency and texture.

Rust Test-It is known that when iron or steel is in contact with water, the metal may become rusted. If the water contains salt or acid, rusting is more rapid and more vulnerable. When grease –lubricated bearing surface come in contacts with water, that surface become stained, then rusted. It is controlled or even prevented by using suitable rust inhibitor to lubricant. Rust inhibiting characteristics of lubricating greases are determined by using ASTM D 1743.

Load Carrying Tests-Lubricants differ in their ability to carry loads, sometimes by keeping the film thicker and sometimes by acting chemically on the surfaces, preventing them from welding. If the load is light or moderate ,we can measure wear. If the load is heavy wear may be so severe that we do better to seek physical evidence of surface damage or determine the load at which such damage occurs. American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM) has standardized the test procedures to determine Extreme Pressure(EP) properties of grease  using “Four –ball Extreme Pressure”( ASTM D  2596), “Timken”( ASTM D  2509), and “SRV” ( ASTM D  5706).

 

 

 

 

 

Basics of Coolants

 

Coolants-Coolants (or antifreeze) are basically heat transfer fluids which are used to transfer unwanted heat energy from engine to radiator. Coolants protect system from corrosion and to prevent the freezing of radiator cooling media.

Need of Coolants -. In a automotive engine, only one-third of the total energy produced works to propel the vehicle forward. An additional one-third is removed as heat energy by the exhaust system. The remaining one-third of heat energy produced is taken away by the coolant.

Application of Coolants- Coolant is widely used in automotive and heat transfer applications. Some of the other applications are cooling systems of automotive engine, stationary & marine diesel engines, as a secondary refrigerant, in air conditioning systems,etc.

Engine cooling system- The engine block of liquid-cooled engines contains passageways or water jackets that the engine coolant passes through. The coolant moving through the engine block removes heat from the engine. The coolant then carries the heat it removes back to the radiator through a system of hoses. In the radiator, heat is rejected from the coolant into the atmosphere, with the help of air flow through the radiator. The air flow is aided by forward movement of the vehicle and by a fan which draws air through the radiator, whether the vehicle is moving or stationary.. Coolant is then circulated from the radiator outlet tank through the water pump and into the cylinder block to complete the circuit. Coolant expands as the temperature and pressure rise in the cooling system. When the limiting system working pressure is reached, the pressure relief valve in pressure relief cap is lifted from its seat and allows coolant to flow through the radiator overflow hose into the radiator coolant recovery reservoir. The pressure relief cap has a rubber seal on the underside to prevent leakage. When cooling system temperature and pressure drop, the coolant contracts in volume, reducing pressure in the radiator. Coolant in the radiator coolant recovery reservoir will then flow back into radiator though the vacuum relief valve in the pressure relief cap. The constant control relay module (CCRM) activates the cooling fan motor when coolant or engine reaches a specified temperature. On vehicles equipped with air conditioning, the cooling fan motor is activated whenever the A/C clutch is engaged.

 

Coolant Composition- There is three components that form coolants. These components are ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, de ionized water and corrosion inhibitor. Ethylene glycols about more than 90%, corrosion inhibitors are used about less than 5%.

Ethylene glycol  -Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound  widely used as an automotive coolants (or antifreeze) and a precursor to polymers. In its pure form, it is an odorless, colorless, syrupy, sweet-tasting liquid. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and ingestion can result in death.

Due to its low freezing point ethylene glycol resists freezing. Pure ethylene glycol having a much higher boiling point and lower vapor pressure  than pure water. Ethylene glycol not only depresses the freezing point, but also elevates the boiling point such that the operating range for the heat transfer fluid is broadened on both ends of the temperature scale.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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